Chen Chang Xin. 
General principle of taiji-quan.



All things dispersing are sure to join and departing once are sure to come to agreement. Each thing existing between Haven and Land in four sides and eight limits of the world, all myriad of phenomena have one source. A united root can be parted for ten thousand branches but ten thousand things may be united in one root. The comprehension of fist's art also follows this common rule.
Taiji-quan has a lot of external form but it's every motion is filled with strength. Although taiji-quan's figures are in permanent changing it's power are from one source. That is called here the united is the unity which embrace all our body from  crown to heels, four extremities and the skeleton. It's internal part consist of the internal organs, tendons and bones. It' external part consist of the muscles, flash and skin. Try to break it and it won't uncover. Beat it and it won't crumble. If the top moves the bottom follows it, if the bottom moves the top itself lead it. Top and bottom move and the middle respond to theirs moving. The middle moves but top and bottom accord it. Internal and external continue each other, front and back support each other. That's why it's said: "it's transpierced by one thread".
However everything must be done without any effort. Move now as a dragon now as a tiger and rush forward as a lightning. But if it's necessary be quite and don't reveal yourself, be firm as a mountain. While you are quite let everything in you be quite to the last fraction. While you are moving there must be nothing immovable in you. Be like water rushing down irrepressible. Be like fire impetuously spreading around and doesn't resist braising. Don't give way to idly thoughts, don't burden yourself by troubles, act sincerely as the situation orders- that's all.
A spiritual power is beeing accumulated gradually day by day. A mastery may be obtained only after training. To comprehend the science of "one thread" which is a base of our school it's necessary to learn and reach the very ultimate knowledge-only than a true mastery will emerge. Work only over the improvement of mastery in spite of that whether it difficult or easy for you. Don't be lazy but also don't hurry yourself. Learn everything in succession and then all parts of the body will combine in "all transpierced unity" themselves. Top and bottom, internal and external will create the one thread. Everything dispersed will join, everything parted will have mutual accordance and the whole body will come back to The United Breath.



There is nothing between Heaven and Land that won't be back after leaving and being straight won't crook. All things have theirs oppositions, there is moving back in every event. That's invariable truth.
If the unity is the principal why it parts in two components? That is called duality are inhibition and exhalation but inhibition and exhalation are Yin and Yang powers. The breath cannot be realized without inhibition and exhalation. Exhalation is Ян, inhibition is Yin, lifting is Yang, lowering is Yin. That's parting between Yang and Yin.
What does it mean clean and dirty? That is lifting- it's clean. That is going down is dirty. Clean is Yang, dirty is Yin. The breath cannot be realized without Yin and Yang like a man cannot exist without moving and immobility. However breath parts in two components it comes back to the unity. It's necessary to follow zealously to this unity, it's prohibited to bind yourself by contrapositions.
The breath fills the whole body but the body itself parts for many sections. If we examine the matter from the point of view of separate parts of the body we'll move far from the true sense of fist's art. It's better to mark in the body only "three sections".

These "three sections" corresponds to head, breast and legs. Forehead is an upper, nose is middle, mouse is down sections in the head. Breast is an upper, abdomen is middle, dantian is down sections in the torso. Thigh is an upper , knee is middle , foot is down sections in the leg. Shoulder is an upper, elbow is middle, palm is down sections in the hand. 
So there are "three sections'' from crown to heels. Without realizing where is upper section a body will lack a head. Without realizing where is middle section a body will lack filling. Without realizing where is down section legs will lack steadiness. That's why it's necessary to pay special attention to "three sections".
When vital energy is put in motion it lifts from extreme sections, follows through middle section and find exit in the root's section. It occurs if we examine the body separately. But if we examine it as a unity then all it's parts from crown to heels will be one section.

External borders of body compose so called "four tips". A vital energy spreading inside the body finds exit trough these tips.
But what is called "four tips"? First among them are the hairs which is a tip of blood, but blood is an ocean of energy. Tongue is a tip of flesh, but flesh is a receptacle of energy. The energy will have no place to accumulate if it doesn't transpierce the flesh.
Teeth are the tip of skeleton and the legs are the tip of tendons. The energy is born in the bones and flow to tendons. So it won't fill the body without reaching teeth and nails.
If "four tips" will be filled there will be enough vital power in the body.


"Three connections" means: heart is connected with the will, energy is connected with physical strength, tendons are connected with bones. These are "three internal connections".
When palms act in accordance with foot and shoulders act in accordance with thighs it's called "three external connections." 
When left palm is in accordance with right foot, left elbow with right knee and left shoulder with right thigh it's called "three connections of right with left."
When head is in accordance with palms, palms with body and body with the steps here is also "three external connections." And when heart is in accordance with eyes, gall-bladder with tendons and kidneys with the bones it's also called "internal connection".
So, speaking in general, when something begins moving there is nothing moveless. There are all three connection in one.

What is "six leading"? Head is a crown of six beginnings Ян and a leader of the whole body. So one cannot but recognize head a "leading" of body. Palm is moved forward and it's base is a shoulder.
If a shoulder doesn't act palm won't move forward. That's why shoulder also must be considered as one of "leading" of body. Energy is accumulated in an elbow, vital power acts via the loin. If a loin doesn't take a leading part energy will disperse and lose pressure. That's why the loin also is "leading" part. Will transpierces the whole body and acts via the step. If the step is not "leading" will loses it's power. That's why it's necessary to pay special attention to it's "leading"! Beside of that right must be "leading" to move up and left, and left must be "leading" to move up and right. All together will be "six leading".
When something becomes "leading" everything begins moving in the body. That's the principle of "six leading."


Step is a base of the whole body, it's a focus of all the movements. All actions of the combat depend on the step! If is it possible to obtain a secret of innumerable metamorphosis of  body's aspect? It' said- "Watching is in eyes, conversion in the heart." But the correct movement along the ground accomplished without any efforts wholly depends on the step.
The movements come from the Incomprehensible, the beginning of an inspired dance is unrealized. But legs begins moving involuntary before all the parts of the body. It's called-"the top is just on the verge of moving but the bottom is already following it."
Beside of that it's necessary to distinguish clearly the steps of front and back legs. Every moment of moving front and back legs must be in accordance.
Generally speaking the vitality of all movements depends on the step. The meaning of step is very important!


The secret of fist's art consists only of energy and strength. However the energy can be strong or weak and the strength can be hard or soft. Hard strength accords to the strong energy but the soft one accords to the weak energy. Distribution of hardness and softness depends on the knowledge to combine strength and deftness.
The action of hard or soft energy comes from the mode vital power's revealing. When extremities moves and vital energy is turned outside but you are quite and firm inside then the strength is hard. When the energy is accumulated inside but you are light and complaint the strength is soft. However application of hardness is impossible without softness. Because if there isn't softness  the strength will be small. Application of the softness is also impossible without hardness. Because if there isn't hardness the punch won't be penetrative. Softness and hardness supplement each other. And thanks to it all the sorts of punches become natural.
It's impossible to apply hardness and softness separately. It's always necessary to remember about it in martial art!

It's said in  "The Precepts of bases"  "A punch comes from heart, fist follows the will." It's always necessary to know yourself and an opponent and to change according to the situation. 
The fist art is like a commander art: to attack without preparing, to step back without thinking. One looks like empty but he is filled in reality. One looks like filled but he is empty in reality. Leave the filling, fill the emptiness, hold by root, rush to the branches. Don't take any conditions of the combat, be like changeable dragon and terrible tiger: attacking the opponents burst into theirs lines like a cannon-ball. 
Top, middle and bottom everything is filled with the energy. Torso, hands and legs everything moves irreproachable according to the rules. Hands are not raised in vain and don't beat to the emptiness, spirit is always cheerful.
The ancients said- "The heart is like gunpowder, the hands are like arbalest. When a spiritual spring begins moving it's difficult to avoid the punch even to a bird. A body is like a bent bow, the hands are like an arrow released from the bow. The birds fall dead because of loud cry-that's result of this miraculous power."
Striking a blow up watch what's going on under your legs. The hand must move quickly, the legs must be light, recognize the situation stealing by the cat's steps. The heart must be concentrated, the eyes must be clear. When hands and legs act in accordance you will reach naturally in the movement. If a hand acts but the body doesn't act a punch won't be successful. But when a hand and a body act in accordance an opponent will be trampled as grass. 
Training alone act as if there is an opponent opposite you. When combating act if there is nobody opposite you. 
One must outstrip everybody by the heart, it's necessary to win everybody by the will, you must attack yourself by the body, it's necessary to excel everybody by the step. The head must be placed straight, the loin must be fixed firmly. Dantian must revolve, everything from top to bottom is inspired with the United breath. 
Previous movement is a teacher, following one is a pupil. It's better thinking how to attack than how to step aside. The secret of mastery consists in "The Heart's Unity " and nothing more! The unit true displays itself in two kinds of breath, realizes via three sections, reveals in four tips and achieves it's fullness in the rotation of five elements.
It's necessary to practice fist art tireless. At first you are to enforce yourself but in time it becomes naturally. The science of fist art consists only in that!